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英语语法-时态篇

实习两年半
2022-06-11 / 1 评论 / 0 点赞 / 540 阅读 / 2,145 字
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现在进行时

什么是时态:

 即时间和形态,不同时间所体现出来的形态不一样。英文中时态的不同通过动词来体现。即动词的形态随着时间的改变而改变。

含义:

 表示正在进行的动作

结构:

 am/is/are + doing(动词的现在分词)

注意:

 am/is/are 更具主语的不同,使用的be动词也不同

I am doing ……
He/She/It is doing ……
We/You/They are doing ……

巧记:

 我用am ,你用areis用于它他她。单数全部用is,复数全部都用are.

{% note info %}
提示: am/is/are 在此做助动词,没有实际意义,帮助动词doing一起做谓语。

用法:

  1. 表示现在正在做的事

    例句:

    Mon is cooking in the kitchen.

    Susan is reading a book.

    I am watching TV.

    They are cleaning the office.

    My dog is running after a cat. // 我的狗在追一直猫

  2. 表示现阶段正在做的事

    例句:

    I am studying English.

    Peter is running after Susan.

否定:

 am/is/are 后加 `not`

例句:

 He isn't sleeping.

 I am not watching TV.

 They aren't running.

疑问

 am/is/are 提支主语之前,句末加问号

例句:

 Are you reading a book?

 What are you doing?

 what is Sally doing?

一般现在时

常与时间状语:often、usually、always、every、sometimes、at……

用法:

  1. 表示经常性习惯性的动作或存在的状态

    I often get up early.

    He is busy every day.

  2. 表示主语的特征、性格、能力、爱好等

    Susan is tall.

    I like swimming.

    John works hard.

  3. 表示客观真理

    There are seven days in a week.

    The earth moves around the sun.

结构:

  1. 主语+系统此be(am/is/are)

    be之后不再有其它动词,常跟形容词、名词或介词短语做表语。

    She is beautiful.

    This is my dog.

    Mon is in the kitchen.

  2. 主语+其它动词

    1)主语+动词原型

     I love you.

     I like coffee.

     You look well.

     We get up at 7 in the morning.

     John and tom like tea.(虽然是第三人称但不是单数)

    否定:主语+don’t + 动词原形

     I don’t love you.

     I don’t like tea.

     没有am/is/are时需要添加助动词do、does、did来构成否定句

    疑问句:在主语前添加助动词do,句末加问号

     Do you like coffee?

     What do you like?

     Which one do you want?

     where do you live?

    一般疑问句的回答用do的简略形式:

     Yes,I do.  No,I don’t.

    2)主语+动词第三人称单数

     Linda likes music.

     My brother likes grapes.

     Blake likes steak.

    否定:主语+doesn’t+动词原形

     Does Linda like music?

     Linda doesn’t like music.

一般过去时

用法:

  1. 表示过去某个特定时间点的状态或动作

    I bought a dictionary yesterday.

    He was a doctor a year ago.

  2. 过去某段时间内的习惯、反复发生的动作

    When he was a child, he often went the bed.

  3. 当谈到已故的人的时候

    Luxun was a great writer.

结构:

  1. 主语+be的过去式(was,were)

    am->was

    is->was

    are->were

    Jimmy was ill last week.

    I was at the dentish’s yesterday.

    It was cold yesterday.

    We were home yesterday.

    I was tired last night.

    提示: 天气、时间等用it做主语。

    例句比较:

     I am a teacher.

     I was a teacher.


     We are good friends.

     We were good friends.

    否定疑问:

     把waswere 看作时am/is/are使用,变为否定和疑问句。

  2. 主语+动词过去式(使用于任何人称)

    例句:

    He jumped off the wall.

    He worked very late last night.

    I arrived home late.

    He said nothing.

    We finished the work.

    比较:

     I love you.
    
     I loved you.
    

    否定:动词前加didn't,把动词改回原形

     I didn't work yesterday.
    
     He didn't come.
    
     We didn't finish the work.
    

    疑问:主语前加did,动词改为原形

     Did he phone you yesterday?
    
     What did you say?
    
     What did you do yesterday?
    
     Did you enjoy yourself last night?
    
     Tom washed the dishes.
    

现在完成时

结构:

 has/have+动词过去分词

 过去分词形式通常与过去式一样,不规则动需单独记忆。

 has/have为助动词(否定句、疑问句不需要在加助动词)

 否定疑问在has/have上发生变化(hasn’t / haven’t)

用法:

  1. 动词在过去已经发生,但对想在的影响依然存在,而且具体发生时间不明,一但具体时间确定,就必须使用一般 过去式

    just(刚刚)

    already(已经)

    yet(还,任然)

    never(从不)

    ever(曾经)

    例句:

    He has already left.

    I have already finished my work.

    We have already had breakfast.

    I have already had 3 cups of coffee.

    My brother has just arrived in Beijing.

  2. 表示一直延续到现在的动作

    常出现for、since、so far

    for:时间段

    since:时间点

    例句:

    I have lived in Beijing for 12 years. // 我在北京已经居住了12年了

    I have lived in Beijing since 2002.//从2002年开始我就居住在北京了

    So far,we haven’t seen each other.// 到目前位置,我们还没有见过面

  3. 例句比较

    I am a teacher.// 一般现在时,我是一名老师

    I was a teacher 12 years ago.// 一般过去式,我12年前时老师

    I have been a teacher for 12 years.// 现在完成时,我已经当老师12年了

一般将来时

含义:

 表示从现在看将来要发生的动作或情况。

常与将来的时间状语连用:tomorrow、next week

结构:

will/shall + 动词原形

will:可用于任何人称,常和主语写为 ’ ll ,否定缩写为 ‘ won’t

will/shall 为情态动词,不随主语的改变而改变,所有情态动词后接动词原形

例句:

  1. I’ll leave Beijing tomorrow.
  2. It’ll snow tonight.
  3. It will not snow tonight.
  4. Will you miss me?// 你会想我吗?
  5. I was,am and will be you friend.
  6. He will move house.
  7. Will you call me tonight?
  8. I will not come tomorrow.=>I won’t come tomorrow.

过去将来时

表示从过去看将来要发生的动作

结构:

will的过去式==would

would + 动词原形

He said he wouldn’t come tomorrow.

过去进行时

表示过去某个时间段或某个时间点正在进行的动作

结构:

was/were + doing

例句:

  1. She was swimming yesterday afternoon.
  2. I was sleeping at ten last night.

 过去进行时经常与 when、as、while引导的时间状语用于从句中,用于说明主句动作发生的背景。when、as、while可以替换使用。

例句:

  1. When I was cooking,he called.
  2. When he was crossing the street,he slipped.
  3. While we were having dinner,the doorbell ring.

疑问否定:

 过去进行时存在助动词,所以疑问句和否定句在助动词上发生变化。

否定疑问例句:

  1. You were not listening to me.
  2. Were you listening to me?
  3. How were you feeling at that time?
  4. Yesterday while I was walking home,I saw car accident.
  5. Were you talking to me?
  6. Who were you talking to just now?

动词的现在分词

  1. 一般动词在词尾加 ing

    read--------reading

    cook-------cooking

  2. 以不发音的e结尾的动词,去eing

    make-------making

    type--------typing

    come------coming

  3. 以重度闭音节结尾的动词,双写最后一个辅音在加ing

    最后三个字母(辅音–元音–辅音)然后重度的单词为重读音

    put—putting

    run—running

    begin–beginning

    sharpen–sharpening

动词的第三人称单数

  1. 一般动词在词尾加s

    like-----likes

    run----runs

    live—lives

    work—works

  2. 以辅音字母 + y 结尾的动词,把yi在加es

    cry—cries

    fly—flies

    study—studies

    buy—buys(不满足直接加s

  3. s、x、ch、sh、o结尾的动词,词尾加es

    teach—teaches

    wash—washes

    fix—fixes

动词的过去式

不规则动词的过去式

  1. say------said
  2. do------did
  3. go-------went
  4. come-----came
  5. break----broke
  6. tell------told
  7. ………………

有规则动词的过去式

  1. 一般动词加ed

    call------called

    answer----answered

    finish----finished

  2. e结尾的动词只加d

    phone—phoned

    believe------believed

    agree------agreed

  3. 以辅音字母+y结尾的动词yi在家ed

    cry-----cried

    try-----tried

    study----studied

    enjoy----enjoied

    play----plaied

  4. 以重度闭音节结尾的动词,双写最后一个辅音字母加ed

    stop-----stopped

    beg-----begged

    fit----fitted

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